CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship SYLLABUS FOR EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, OCEAN AND PLANETARY SCIENCES PAPER I (PART B)
1. The Earth and the Solar System:
Milky Way and the solar system. Modern theories on the origin of the Earth and other planetary bodies. Earth’s orbital parameters, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Geological Time Scale; Space and time scales of processes in the solid Earth, atmosphere and oceans. Age of the Earth. Radioactive isotopes and their applications in earth sciences. Basic principles of stratigraphy. Theories about the origin of life and the nature of fossil record. Earth’s gravity and magnetic fields and its thermal structure: Geoid, spheroid; Isostasy.
2 A. Earth Materials: Gross composition and physical properties of important minerals and rocks; properties and processes responsible for mineral concentrations; nature and distribution of rocks and minerals in different units of the earth and different parts of India
2 B. Surface features and Processes
Physiography of the Earth; weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of Earth’s material; formation of soil, sediments and sedimentary rocks; energy balance of the Earth’s surface processes; physiographic features and river basins in India
3. Interior of the Earth, Deformation and Tectonics
Basic concepts of seismology and internal structure of the Earth. Physico- chemical and seismic properties of Earth’s interior. Concepts of stress and strain. Behaviour of rocks under stress; Folds, joints and faults. Earthquakes – their causes and measurement. Interplate and intraplate seismicity. Paleomagnetism, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
4. Oceans and Atmosphere
Hypsography of the continents and ocean floor -continental shelf, slope, rise and abyssal plains. Physical and chemical properties of sea water and their spatial variations. Residence times of elements in sea water. Ocean currents, waves and tides, important current systems, thermohaline circulation and the oceanic conveyor belt. Major water masses of the world’s oceans. Biological productivity in the oceans.
Motion of fluids, waves in atmospheric and oceanic systems. Atmospheric turbulence and boundary layer. Structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere, lapse rate and stability, scale height, geopotential, greenhouse gases and global warming. Cloud formation and precipitation processes, air- sea interactions on different space and time scales. Insolation and heat budget, radiation balance, general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Climatic and sea level changes on different time scales. Coupled ocean-atmosphere system, El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). General weather systems of India, – Monsoon system, cyclone and jet stream, Western disturbances and severe local convective systems, distribution of precipitation over India. Marine and atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion.
5. Environmental Earth Sciences
Properties of water; hydrological cycle; water resources and management. Energy resources, uses, degradation, alternatives and management; Ecology and biodiversity. Impact of use of energy and land on the environment. Exploitation and conservation of mineral and other natural resources. Natural hazards. Elements of Remote Sensing.
CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research
Fellowship and Lecturer-ship SYLLABUS FOR EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, OCEAN AND PLANETARYSCIENCES PAPER II
1) MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY:
Concept of point group, space group, reciprocal lattice, diffraction and imaging. Concepts of crystal field theory and mineralogical spectroscopy. TEM and SEM applications. Lattice defects (point, line and planar). Electrical, magnetic and optical properties of minerals. Bonding and crystal structures of common oxides, sulphides, and silicates. Transformation of minerals – polymorphism, polytypism, and polysomatism. Solid solution and exsolution.
Steady-state geotherms. Genesis, properties, emplacement and crystallization of magmas. Phase equilibrium studies of simple systems, effect of volatiles on melt equilibria. Magma-mixing, -mingling and -immiscibility.
Metamorphic structures and textures; isograds and facies. Mineral reactions with condensed phases, solid solutions, mixed volatile equilibria and thermobarometry. Metamorphism of pelites, mafic-ultra mafic rocks and siliceous dolomites. Material transport during metamorphism. P-T-t path in regional metamorphic terrains, plate tectonics and metamorphism.
Petrogenetic aspects of important rock suites of India, such as the Deccan Traps, layered intrusive complexes, anorthosites, carbonatites, charnockites, khondalites and gondites.
2) STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOTECTONICS:
Theory of stress and strain. Behaviour of rocks under stress. Mohr circle. Various states of stress and their representation by Mohr circles. Different types of failure and sliding criteria. Geometry and mechanics of fracturing and conditions for reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities. Paleostress analyses. Common types of finite strain ellipsoids. L-, L-S-, and S-tectonic fabrics. Techniques of strain analysis. Particle paths and flow patterns. Progressive strain history and methods for its determination. Deformation mechanisms. Role of fluids in deformation processes. Geometry and analyses of brittle-ductile and ductile shear zones. Sheath folds. Geometry and mechanics of development of folds, boudins, foliations and lineations. Interference patterns and structural analyses in areas of superposed folding. Fault-related folding.
Gravity induced structures. Major tectonic features and associated structures in extensional-, compressional-, and strike-slip-terranes. Geological and geophysical characteristics of plate boundaries. Geodynamic evolution of Himalaya.
3) PALEONTOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS:
Theories on origin of life. Organic evolution – Punctuated Equilibrium and Phyletic Gradualism models. Mass extinctions and their causes. Application of fossils in age determination and correlation. Paleoecology, Life habitats and various ecosystems, Paleobiogeography. Modes of preservation of fossils and taphonomic considerations. Types of microfossils. Environmental significance of fossils and trace fossils. Use of microfossils in interpretation of sea floor tectonism. Application of micropaleontology in hydrocarbon exploration. Oxygen and Carbon isotope studies of microfossils and their use in paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic interpretation. Important invertebrate fossils, vertebrate fossils, plant fossils and microfossils in Indian stratigraphy.
4) SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY:
Clastic sediments- gravel, sand and mud; biogenic, chemical and volcanogenic sediments. Classification of conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, and carbonate rocks. Flow regimes and processes of sediment transport. Sedimentary textures and structures. Sedimentary facies and environments, reconstruction of paleoenvironments. Formation and evolution of sedimentary basins. Diagenesis of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks.
Recent developments in stratigraphic classification. Code of stratigraphic nomenclature – Stratotypes, Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP). Lithostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic subdivisions. Methods of startigraphic correlation including Shaw’s Graphic correlation. Concept of sequence stratigraphy. Rates of sediment accumulation, unconformities. Facies concept in Stratigraphy – Walther’s law. Methods for paleogeographic reconstruction. Earth’s Climatic History. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India with reference to the type areas- their correlation with equivalent formations in other regions. Boundary problems in Indian Phanerozoic stratigraphy.
5) MARINE GEOLOGY AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY:
Morphologic and tectonic domains of the ocean floor. Structure, composition and mechanism of the formation of oceanic crust. Seawater-basalt interactions, hydrothermal vents- chemical and biological significance of hydrothermal vents systems. Ocean margins and their significance. Ocean Circulation, Coriolis effect and Ekman spiral, convergence, divergence and upwelling, El Nino. Thermohaline circulation and oceanic conveyor belt. Formation of Bottom waters; major water. masses of the world’s oceans. Oceanic sediments: Factors controlling the deposition and distribution of oceanic sediments; geochronology of oceanic sediments, diagenetic changes in oxic and anoxic environments. Tectonic evolution of the ocean basins. Mineral resources. Paleoceanography – Approaches to paleoceanographic reconstructions; various proxy indicators for paleoceanographic interpretation. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and its applications in Paleoceanography. Ocean Drilling Programme and its major accomplishments in paleoceanography. Opening and closing of ocean gateways and their effect on circulation and climate during the Cenozoic. Sea level processes and Sea level changes.
Structure and atomic properties of elements, the Periodic Table; ionic substitution in minerals; Phase rule and its applications in petrology, thermodynamics of reactions involving pure phases, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and fluids; equilibrium and distribution coefficients. Nucleation and diffusion processes in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary environments, redox reactions and Eh-pH diagrams and their applications. Mineral/mineral assemblages as ‘sensors’ of ambient environments. Geochemical studies of aerosols, surface-, marine-, and ground waters. Radioactive decay schemes and their application to geochronology and petrogenesis. Stable isotopes and their application to earth system processes.
7) ECONOMIC GEOLOGY:
Magmatic, hydrothermal and surface processes of ore formation. Metallogeny and its relation to crustal evolution; Active ore-forming systems, methods of mineral deposit studies including ore microscopy, fluid inclusions and isotopic systematics; ores and metamorphism- cause and effect relationships. Geological setting, characteristics, and genesis of ferrous, base and noble metals. Origin, migration and entrapment of petroleum; properties of source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and combination traps. Methods of petroleum exploration. Petroliferous basins of India. Origin of peat, lignite, bitumen and anthracite. Classification, rank and grading of coal; coal petrography, coal resources of India. Gas hydrates and coal bed methane. Nuclear and non-conventional energy resources.
8) PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY AND CRUSTAL EVOLUTION:
Evolution of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere;, lithological, geochemical and stratigraphic characteristics of granite – greenstone and granulite belts. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the cratonic nuclei, mobile belts and Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India. Life in Precambrian. Precambrian – Cambrian boundary with special reference to India.
9) QUATERNARY GEOLOGY:
Definition of Quaternary. Quaternary Stratigraphy – Oxygen Isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Quaternary climates – glacial-interglacial cycles, eustatic changes, proxy indicators of paleoenvironmental/ paleoclimatic changes, – land, ocean and cryosphere (ice core studies). Responses of geomorphic systems to climate, sea level and tectonics on variable time scales in the Quaternary,. Quaternary dating methods, -radiocarbon, Uranium series, Luminescence, Amino- acid, relative dating methods. Quaternary stratigraphy of India- continental records (fluvial, glacial, aeolian, palaeosols and duricrust); marine records; continental- marine correlation of Quaternary record.
Evolution of man and Stone Age cultures. Plant and animal life in relation to glacial and interglacial cycles during Quaternary.
Tectonic geomorphology, neotectonics, active tectonics and their applications to natural hazard assessment.